Classification Of Accounts

different types of accounting

Modified cash-basis and accrual accounting use the same accounts, which are advanced accounts such as AP and long-term liabilities. To increase revenue accounts, credit the corresponding sub-account. Again, equity accounts increase through credits and decrease through debits.

  • Management accounting provides an organization’s internal management with financial information that helps improve the business.
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  • Enter your transaction number, journal entry date, accounts info and you are good to go.
  • At its simplest, public accounting, as opposed to private accounting, refers to businesses that provide accounting help to other businesses.
  • Accounting is the process of recording, generating, and expressing transactions made by a business.

Additionally, tax accounting is used to accurately calculate tax due, lower tax liability, complete tax returns accurately, and file tax forms in a timely manner. This is necessary for individuals, businesses, government entities, and nonprofits. Cost accounting is considered a form of management accounting, focusing on the future, and is primarily used as an aid in the decision-making process rather than as a way of reporting past performance.

Employees working in this field decide on the best times to install updated technology and monitor the progress of existing systems to determine if there is an increase in productivity over a given timeframe. They can make decisions in conjunction with the IT department to instill continuity with technological processes. They must abide by Generally Accepted Accounting Principles set for U.S. businesses and International Financial Reporting Standards if a company operates overseas. Overall, financial accountants need to have strong attention to detail to convey the current financial state to outside sources. In this article, we explore why accounting is important, the different types of accounting available and what career options exist for professionals interested in accounting.

Construction Management

The main difference between financial accounting and governmental accounting is that governmental entities use separate funds to keep track of income and expenditures. Management accounting information is shared exclusively with others in an organization. However when comparing managerial and financial accounting, the latter is designed to inform shareholders, investors, and financial institutes about the performance of a business for a specified period of time. While very small businesses frequently use cash accounting, all larger businesses as well as publicly traded businesses are required to use accrual accounting. Government accountants manage the financial planning and allocation of resources to departments within a local, state or federal government. This type of accounting has standards that must comply with the Governmental Accounting Standards Board who is responsible for developing consistent accounting procedures for local and state governments. They also monitor a government’s budget and allocate funds appropriately.

different types of accounting

Accountants employed by the Federal Government can be part of the IRS, or can be involved in budgeting and government asset management. So this was the process to set up accounts for your small business.

If you enjoy crime dramas, forensic accounting may be of interest to you. The focus here is on generating financial statements like budgets, product costings, cash flow projections and business acquisition analysis reports.


When this happens it appears on the bank statement as one transaction. To deal with this, the initial transactions are recorded in Undeposited Funds, and then when you do the bank deposit you complete a transfer for the amount of the deposit into the appropriate account. This allows the money to move through your accounting system properly and the deposits will match what you have in the accounting software. An account is a unique place in the general ledger used for recording a balance along with a history of changes to that balance. A general ledger contains all the accounts for recording transactions relating to a company’s assets, liabilities, owners’ equity, revenue, and expenses.

different types of accounting

Internal auditing is performed to determine whether or not the policies and procedures set by management are being followed. An important purpose of internal auditing is to evaluate whether the activities performed by the employees at various levels are in line with the goals set by management.

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The term auditing generally refers to review, examination, verification, evaluation or inspection of historical data, records or events belonging to an entity. In accounting and business, there are two types of auditing – external auditing and internal auditing. Financial accounting is concerned with the preparation of periodic financial reports by using historical data of a business enterprise. The basic purpose of these reports is to provide useful and timely information about an entity’s financial position and its operating results to owners, managers, investors, creditors and government agencies etc.

Larger companies, especially manufacturers, will use many more reports. Larger businesses often employ accountants in-house to help them comply with these standard accounting principles. Internal auditing involves evaluating how a business divides up accounting duties, who is authorized to do what accounting task and what procedures and policies are in place. Internal auditing helps a business zero in on fraud, mismanagement and waste or identify and control any potential different types of accounting weaknesses in its policies or procedures, according to Accounting Tools. Cost accounting is most commonly used in the manufacturing industry, an industry that has a lot of resources and costs to manage. It is a type of accounting used internally to assess a company’s operations. Financial accounting is performed to conform to external regulations and is not for internal employees to analyze and make financial decisions—managerial accounting is used for this purpose.

It has extensive reporting functions, multi-user plans and an intuitive interface. All financial auditors are accountants, though all accountants are not auditors. Forensic accounting is a unique combination of accounting, auditing, and investigative techniques. Product Reviews Unbiased, expert reviews on the best software and banking products for your business. Best Of We’ve tested, evaluated and curated the best software solutions for your specific business needs.

Disagreement exists within the accounting and finance world about whether cost and managerial accounting are the same or two separate entities. Whatever you’re feeling about it, these two areas of accounting certainly do overlap. The primary function of cost accounting is for a business to determine its production costs by considering how much it spends to purchase the supplies and labor needed to create its products. AccountantsAn accountant is a finance professional responsible for recording business transactions on behalf of a firm, reporting the firm’s performance and issuing financial statements. Thus, an accountant plays an important role whether it is a small domestic entity or a large multinational company.

different types of accounting

Tax accounting is derived from the Internal Revenue Code , separating the specialty from what’s required to, for instance, prepare public financial statements. Skilled tax accountants are needed to help individuals, businesses, corporations and even those who are retained earnings exempt from paying taxes fulfill tax-related needs. Tax AccountingTax accounting is the framework that considers the tax returns instead of public financial statements disclosure while recording and presenting the business transactions in the books of accounts.

This field is concerned with the aggregation of financial information into external reports. Or, if a company is publicly-held, it requires a knowledge of the standards issued by the government entity responsible for public company reporting in a specific country . There is a specialty in external reporting, which usually involves a detailed knowledge of accounting standards. There is also the controller track, which requires a combined knowledge of financial and management accounting. Which accounting method you should choose depends on the size of your business. Like a single entry system of accounting, a cash accounting method is preferred by small businesses because it is simple to implement and saves time.

It has to be understood that practically all accounting practices will have outliers that cannot be foreseen. After all, accounting is only a projection, no matter how well it has been prepared on the most robust data. In cost accounting, an outlier is a data point that does not conform with previous patterns, for a myriad of different reasons. Most general accountants can satisfy the role of a cost accountant.

This method of tracking is necessary in order to accurately report how each fund or program is performing and how public money is being spent. Depending on the circumstances, all three types of management accounting may be used simultaneously, or management may choose to only use one or two methods, depending on the information they desire.

Branches Of Accounting

Management accounting provides an organization’s internal management with financial information that helps improve the business. Nowadays, accounting is done by sophisticated software that has zero errors. However, it is the skill and hard work of the accountant that brings uniformity to the accounting processes. That is why, accounting and accountants are so important for a business. Credit Accounting − Credit accounting helps analyze the credit unpaid of a company or an individual. This is required because managers won’t want to remain tied to unpaid bills all the time.

Revenue Or Income

Fiduciary accounting involves handling of accounts managed by a person entrusted with the custody and management of property of or for the benefit of another person. Examples of fiduciary accounting include trust accounting, receivership, and estate accounting. It can sound confusing, but this is mainly because there are so many terms that mean the same thing. And people use different terms when the real essence of cost accounting can be understood quite handily with a few basic principles. Breakeven Formula – This the point at which a business breaks even taking into consideration the price of the goods/services rendered.

What Are The Two Accounting Methods?

The other costs can be fit into either the fixed or variable categories. Direct, indirect, fixed, and variable are the 4 main kinds of cost. In addition to this, you might also want to look into operating costs, opportunity costs, sunk costs, and controllable costs. We have described these 8 major accounting costs below for further clarification.

The fiduciary accountant manages any account and activities related to the administration and guardianship of property. Tax accounting involves planning for tax time and the preparation of tax returns. This branch of accounting aides businesses be compliant with regulations set up by the IRS. FreshBooks has simple online accounting software for small business that makes it easy to produce these reports. Managerial accounting includes cash flow budgeting and forecasting, cost analysis, financial analysis, reviewing past business decisions and more. Government accounting mainly focuses on the financial administration of the Government’s activities for promoting welfare to the maximum level in the form of the various services given by the Government. Thus it is concerned mainly with the systematic recording of the income and expenditures of the Government offices.


This is sometimes considered a subcategory of management accounting. First, let’s try to understand what accounting means at a fundamental level. It refers to any practice of measuring, recording, assessing, or evaluating financial accounts or transactions.

In sole proprietorship and partnership, an account titled as drawings account is used to account for all withdrawals. In corporate form of business withdrawals are more systematic and usually termed as distributions to stockholders. The account used for recording such distributions is known as dividend account. Tax accounting deals with the tax related matters of a business enterprise. It includes computation of taxable income and presentation of financial or other information to tax authorities required by tax laws and regulations of a country. Many CGFMs are responsible for advising, preparing taxes, helping with budgets, and balancing financial statements for government spending and taxes collected.

Author: Laine Proctor